Amikacin Sulfate: Uses, Dosage, Side Effects

Generic Name
Amikacin Sulfate
Therapeutic Class: Aminoglycosides

Amikacin has indicated within the short-term treatment of great infections thanks to susceptible strains of Gram-negative bacteria. Amikacin is effective in bacterial septicemia (including neonatal sepsis); in serious infections of the tract, bones, and joints, central systema nervosum (including meningitis) and skin and soft tissue; intra-abdominal infections (including peritonitis); and in burns and postoperative infections (including post vascular surgery). Clinical studies have shown Amikacin also to be effective in serious complicated and recurrent tract infections thanks to those organisms.

Amikacin was effective in infections caused by gentamicin and/or tobramycin-resistant strains of Gram-negative organisms, particularly Proteus rettgeri, Providencia stuartii, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Amikacin has also been shown to be effective in staphylococci infections and should be considered as initial therapy under certain conditions within the treatment of known or suspected staphylococcal diseases like severe infections where the causative organism could also be either a Gram-negative bacterium or a staphylococcus.

Amikacin Sulfate may be a semi-synthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic. Amikacin is active in vitro against Pseudomonas species, Escherichia coli, Proteus species, Providencia species, Klebsiella-Enterobacter species, Acinetobacter species, and Citrobacter freundii. When strains of the above organisms are found to be immune to other aminoglycosides, including Gentamicin, tobramycin, and KanAmykin, many are vulnerable to Amikacin. Amikacin sulfate is active in vitro against penicillinase and non-penicillinase-producing Staphylococcus species including methicillin-resistant strains.

Dosage & Administration:
  • Adults and children: 15 mg/kg/day in two equally divided doses (equivalent to 500 mg bid in adults). The use of 100 mg is suggested for youngsters for the accurate measurement of the acceptable dose.
  • Neonates and premature children: An initial loading dose of 10 mg/kg followed by 15 mg/kg/day in two equally divided doses.
  • Elderly: Amikacin is excreted by the renal route. Renal function should be assessed whenever possible and dosage adjusted as described under impaired renal function.
  • Life-threatening infections and/or those caused by Pseudomonas: The adult dose could also be increased to 500 mg every eight hours but should neither exceed 1.5g/day nor be administered for a period longer than 10 days. A maximum total adult dose of 15g shouldn't be exceeded.
  • Urinary tract infections (other than pseudomonal infections): 7.5mg/kg/day in two equally divided doses (equivalent to 250 mg b.i.d. in adults).
  • Impaired renal function: In patients with impaired renal function, the daily dose should be reduced and/or the intervals between doses increased to avoid the accumulation of the drug.
Intramuscular or intravenous administration: for many infections the intramuscular route is preferred, but in life-threatening infections, or in patients in whom the injection route isn't feasible the intravenous route could also be used.
Intraperitoneal use: Amikacin could also be used as an irritant after recovery from anesthesia in a concentration of 0.25%.

Concurrent administration of Amikacin with myorelaxants results in potentiation of their effects and there's an opportunity for a cessation of breathing. the mixture with other Aminoglycoside antibiotics should be avoided due to the augmentation of their ototoxic and nephrotoxic effects. Concurrent administration of Amikacin with fast-acting diuretics increases the danger of ototoxicity in patients with kidney failure. A combination of Cephalosporins or Polymixins increases the danger of nephrotoxicity.

Amikacin Injection is contraindicated in patients with a known history of hypersensitivity to Amikacin, any constituents of the injection.

Side Effects:
The adverse effects are reported with the utilization of Amikacin are tinnitus, vertigo, partial reversible or irreversible deafness, skin rash, drug fever, headache, paraesthesia, nausea, and vomiting.

Pregnancy & Lactation:
Amikacin rapidly crosses the placenta into the fetal circulation and amnionic fluid and there's a possible risk of ototoxicity within the fetus. there's no information available regarding the security of this drug during breastfeeding.

Precautions & Warnings:
Since Amikacin is present in high concentrations within the renal excretory system, patients should be hydrated to attenuate chemical irritation of the renal tubules. If azotemia increases, treatment should be stopped. Monitoring of renal function during treatment with aminoglycosides is especially important.

In the event of an overdose or toxic reaction, peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis will aid in the removal of Amikacin from the blood.

Keep below 30°C temperature, far away from light & moisture. exclude of the reach of children.


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